Planning can be defined as “thinking in advance what is to be done, when it is to be done, how it is to be done and by whom it should be done”. In simple words we can say, planning bridges the gap between where we are standing today and where we want to reach.
Planning involves setting objectives and deciding in advance the appropriate course of action to achieve these objectives so we can also define planning as setting up of objectives and targets and formulating an action plan to achieve them.
Another important ingredient of planning is time. Plans are always developed for a fixed time period as no business can go on planning endlessly.
Features/Nature/Characteristic of Planning
1. Planning contributes to Objectives:
2.Planning is Primary function of management
4. Planning is futuristic/Forward looking
5. Planning is continuous
6. Planning involves decision making
7.Planning is a mental exercise
Importance/Significance of Planning:
. 1️⃣Planning provides Direction:
Planning is concerned with predetermined course of action. It provides the directions to the efforts of employees. Planning makes clear what employees have to do, how to do, etc. By stating in advance how work has to be done, planning provides direction for action. Employees know in advance in which direction they have to work. This leads to Unity of Direction also. If there were no planning, employees would be working in different directions and organisation would not be able to achieve its desired goal.
2️⃣Planning Reduces the risk of uncertainties
Organisations have to face many uncertainties and unexpected situations every day. Planning helps the manager to face the uncertainty because planners try to foresee the future by making some assumptions regarding future keeping in mind their past experiences and scanning of business environments. The plans are made to overcome such uncertainties. The plans also include unexpected risks such as fire or some other calamities in the organisation. The resources are kept aside in the plan to meet such uncertainties.
3️⃣Planning reduces over lapping and wasteful activities
The organisational plans are made keeping in mind the requirements of all the departments. The departmental plans are derived from main organisational plan. As a result there will be co-ordination in different departments. On the other hand, if the managers, non-managers and all the employees are following course of action according to plan then there will be integration in the activities. Plans ensure clarity of thoughts and action and work can be carried out smoothly.
4️⃣Planning Promotes innovative ideas:
Planning requires high thinking and it is an intellectual process. So, there is a great scope of finding better ideas, better methods and procedures to perform a particular job. Planning process forces managers to think differently and assume the future conditions. So, it makes the managers innovative and creative.
Planning helps the managers to take various decisions. As in planning goals are set in advance and predictions are made for future. These predictions and goals help the manager to take fast decisions.
6. Planning establishes standard for controlling:
Controlling means comparison between planned and actual output and if there is variation between both then find out the reasons for such deviations and taking measures to match the actual output with the planned. But in case there is no planned output then controlling manager will have no base to compare whether the actual output is adequate or not.
For example, if the planned output for a week is 100 units and actual output produced by employee is 80 units then the controlling manager must take measures to bring the 80 unit production upto 100 units but if the planned output, i.e., 100 units is not given by the planners then finding out whether 80 unit production is sufficient or not will be difficult to know. So, the base for comparison in controlling is given by planning function only.
7. Focuses attention on objectives of the company:
Planning function begins with the setting up of the objectives, policies, procedures, methods and rules, etc. which are made in planning to achieve these objectives only. When employees follow the plan they are leading towards the achievement of objectives. Through planning, efforts of all the employees are directed towards the achievement of organisational goals and objectives.
Once plans are made to decide the future course of action the manager may not be in a position to change them. Following predefined plan when circumstances are changed may not bring positive results for organisation. This kind of rigidity in plan may create difficulty.
2. Planning may not work in dynamic environment:
Business environment is very dynamic as there are continuously changes taking place in economic, political and legal environment. It becomes very difficult to forecast these future changes. Plans may fail if the changes are very frequent.
The environment consists of number of segments and it becomes very difficult for a manager to assess future changes in the environment. For example there may be change in economic policy, change in fashion and trend or change in competitor’s policy. A manager cannot foresee these changes accurately and plan may fail if many such changes take place in environment.
3. It reduces creativity:
With the planning the managers of the organisation start working rigidly and they become the blind followers of the plan only. The managers do not take any initiative to make changes in the plan according to the changes prevailing in the business environment. They stop giving suggestions and new ideas to bring improvement in working because the guidelines for working are given in planning only.
4. Planning involves huge Cost:
Planning process involves lot of cost because it is an intellectual process and companies need to hire the professional experts to carry on this process. Along with the salary of these experts the company has to spend lot of time and money to collect accurate facts and figures. So, it is a cost-consuming process. If the benefits of planning are not more than its cost then it should not be carried on.
5. It is a time consuming process:
Planning process is a time-consuming process because it takes long time to evaluate the alternatives and select the best one. Lot of time is needed in developing planning premises. So, because of this, the action gets delayed. And whenever there is a need for prompt and immediate decision then we have to avoid planning.
6. Planning does not guarantee success:
Sometimes managers have false sense of security that plans have worked successfully in past so these will be working in future also. There is a tendency in managers to rely on pretested plans.
It is not true that if a plan has worked successfully in past, it will bring success in future also as there are so many unknown factors which may lead to failure of plan in future. Planning only provides a base for analysing future. It is not a solution for future course of action.
7. Lack of accuracy:
In planning we are always thinking in advance and planning is concerned with future only and future is always uncertain. In planning many assumptions are made to decide about future course of action. But these assumptions are not 100% accurate and if these assumptions do not hold true in present situation or in future condition then whole planning will fail.
For example, if in the plan it is assumed that there will be 5% inflation rate and in future condition the inflation rate becomes 10% then the whole plan will fail and many adjustments will be required to be made.
Sometimes planning fails due to following limitations on which managers have no control.
(i) Natural calamity:
Natural calamities such as flood, earthquake, famine etc. may result in failure of plan.
(ii) Change in
(iii) Change in taste/fashion and trend in the market:
Sometimes plans may fail when the taste/fashion or trend in market goes against the expectation of planners.
(iv) Change in technologies:
The introduction of new technologies may also lead to failure of plans for products using old technology.
(v) Change in government/economic policy:
Managers have no control over government decisions. If government economic or industrial policies are not framed as expected by manager then also plans may fai
Plan is a document that outlines how goals are going to be met. It is a specific action proposed to help the organization achieve its objectives. There may be more than one way and means of reaching a particular goal but with the help of logical plans, objectives of an organization could be easily achieved.
Single Use Plans:
Single use plans are one time use plan. These are designed to achieve a particular goal that once achieved will not reoccur in future. These are made to meet the needs of unique situations. The duration or length of single use plan depends upon the activity or goal for which it is made. It may last one day or it may last for weeks or months if the project for which it is made is long.
Standing plans are also known as Repeat Use Plans. These plans focus on situations which occur repeatedly. Standing plans are used over and over again. They are made once but retain their value over a period of years. Although some revisions and updates are made in these plans from time to time.