The Indian Constitution is regarded as the most extensive evidence and cumbersome Constitution worldwide. It is a document that contains the structure of the Indian political system, rights, responsibilities, framework and confinements of the government, that are required to be followed by the government. The fundamental rights and duties of the citizens of India are also demonstrated. It is the absolute law i.e. lex loci in India, including the legislative, executive and the judiciary acquiring powers from it. The Constitutional document holds objects, rights or obligations sacred in nature.
It consists of 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 Schedules. It also consists of a preamble which is the soul of the Constitution. The Preamble marks India as a secular country and it is governed and run by the Indians solely.
Individual freedom: The freedom of an individual was the result of constant political and sophisticated pursuit for over centuries. The demand for the freedom of press continued all round the British colonialism. The freedom of expression is considered as an essential element in the Constitution, while once basic denied in the Rowlatt Act.
Social Justice: The social justice was always linked to liberalism, as the reservation provisions for the Scheduled Tribes mentioned in the Constitution. It was believed that barely providing rights to equality and voting rights were not adequate. Thus, special provisions such as seat reservation in political and public offices were introduced in order to preserve the Sheduled Tribe’s interests.
Respect for diversity and minority rights: The Constitution makers found this a big challenge to encourage liberalism between communities and promoting equality in the then situation of conflict and order of pecking. Thus, in order to make sure that all the communities are at peace without any domination, it was obligatory to acknowledge rights on the basis of communities. As a result, a right such as right to religion was included in the Constitution.
Securalism: Although the term ‘secular’ was not mentioned in the Constitution but the Indian Constitution has been always secular. Securalism refers to mutual separation between an individual’s state and religion in order to preserve the morals such as rights to citizenship and freedom. The western conception of secularism proposed that the state should not interfere in the religious matter strictly. However, the then conditions of India was different, thus the Constitution makers had to form some other adequate measure. As a result, the makers introduced State’s Intervention power and rights of religious groups.
Universal Franchise: During the non-formal way of seeking the Indian constitutional drafting, it was declared by the author that any individual born in India had the authority to enter public offices and participate in nation’s affairs. Therefore, universal franchise was regarded as a beneficiary instrument to express nation’s will.
Federalism: The Constitution had formed a powerful central government but there were significant differences of constitutional origin between the status of law and various sub units under the same federation. Under Article 371, special provisions beneficial to various States were accorded. The Indian Constitution believed that there is nothing wrong in providing distinctive treatment.
National Identity: The Indian Constitution continues to fortify a common national identity. In the past, India endeavoured to hold on to religious identities along with national. Thus, the Indian Constitution has tried to maintain the balance among different identities but common identities were considered beneficial. The aim of the Constitution is to develop fraternity not unity evolved by force.
Thus, it can be concluded from the historical study of the Indian Constitution that the political parties are recurring but the Constitution remains persistent and the Constitution is considered as the Indian Republic’s sacred book.